See photograph of the Orangun of II: Ariwajoye I (1967—?), the 24th king, Oba, of Ola and “Father of the Igbomina Yoruba” taken by John Pemberton III, in Yoruba Beadwork by William Fagg, P. 41 (New York, Rizzoli, 1980). See African Arts, vol. XI, no. 3, April 1978, "Egungun Masquerades of the Igbomina Yoruba" by John Pemberton III, for field photos of very similar staff held by local chief in Egungun festival.
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The relative prestige of an individual or group and the hierarchical position of a social role in a social structure or stratification system. TSIT3 [May 1994 scope note added; lead-in term added. February 1993 descriptor moved.]
Arrangements of beads, often attached to textiles. [December 1992 scope note changed; lead-in term changed, was 'beading (textiles)'; descriptor moved; alternate term deleted, was 'beaded'; related terms added.]
Weapons in the form of a single, long shaft, like a quarterstaff, that serve ceremonial or ritual functions, for instance as symbols of office or public regalia. [July 1998 descriptor added.]
Equus caballus (species)
Original populations of Equus caballus were once found in the steppe zone from Poland to Mongolia. Now domesticated, horses occur throughout the world and in feral populations in some areas. Three of the several early breeds of horse - Przewalski's horse from central Asia, the tarpan from eastern Europe and the Ukrainian steppes, and the forest horse of northern Europe - are generally thought to have been the ancestral stock of modern domestic horses. According to this line of thinking, Przewalski's horse and the tarpan formed the basic breeding stock from which the southerly 'warm-blooded' horses developed, while the forest horse gave rise to the heavy, 'cold-blooded' breeds. All modern breeds are divided as light, fast, spirited breeds typified by the modern Arabian, heavier, slower, and calmer working breeds typified by the Belgian, and intermediate breeds typified by the Thoroughbred. They are also classified according to where they originated (e.g., Percheron, Clydesdale, and Arabian), by the principal use of the horse (riding, draft, coach horse), and by their outward appearance and size (light, heavy, pony).
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